1, the corrosion resistance of chromium stainless steel with a certain (oxidizing acids, organic acids, cavitation), heat and wear resistance. Typically used for power plants, chemical, oil and other equipment and materials. Chromium stainless steel welding is poor, should pay attention to welding, heat treatment conditions and the selection of suitable welding.
2, Cr 13 stainless steel weld hardening of large, easy to crack. If using the same type of chromium stainless steel Welding Electrode Manufacturer (G202, G207) welding must be carried out more than 300 â„ƒ 700 â„ƒ preheat and post weld around the slow cooling process. If the weldment can be postweld heat treated, chrome-nickel stainless steel welding rod should be used (A107, A207).
3, 17 chromium stainless steel to improve corrosion resistance and weldability increased amount of stability and appropriate elements Ti, Nb, Mo, etc., welding of stainless steel better than the chrome 13. Using the same type of chromium stainless steel electrodes (G302, G307), should be above 200 â„ƒ preheating and post-weld tempering around 800 â„ƒ. If the weldment can not be heat treated, chrome-nickel stainless steel welding rod should be used (A107, A207).
4, chrome-nickel stainless steel electrodes with good corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, widely used in chemical, fertilizer, petroleum, medical equipment manufacturing.
5, chrome-nickel stainless steel welding, carbide precipitation by repeated heating to reduce corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.
6, chrome-nickel stainless steel with titanium calcium type of drug skin and low hydrogen type. Titanium calcium type can be used for AC-DC, AC welding penetration but shallow, and easy to redness, so as far as possible the DC power supply. Diameter of 4.0 and below can be used for all position welding parts, 5.0 and above for flat welding and fillet welding.
7, the electrode should be used to keep dry, titanium calcium type shall be 150 â„ƒ drying 1 hour, low-hydrogen type should be dried by 200-250 â„ƒ for 1 hour (can not be repeated drying, easy to crack or peel off the skin drugs), to prevent the Brazing Alloys viscous oil and other drug skin dirt, so as not to increase the carbon content and the resulting impact of the weld weldment quality.
8, in order to prevent corrosion of heat generated between the eyes, the welding current is not too large, less than about 20% carbon steel electrode, the arc should not be too long, the layer between the fast-cooling, in order to narrow weld is appropriate.
Face the new situation after accession to WTO, China's influence in the welding industry, companies have realized the importance of technological innovation, the implementation of technological innovation as a business to maintain long-term stable and healthy development of an important guarantee.
Welding Technology Center set up the enterprise, the enterprise implementation of product development (design), production process development and other work functions, but also the force of technological innovation. In the current situation, to strengthen the construction of technical centers, foster high-quality technical teams, we establish a new operational mechanism of technological innovation, is to enhance technological innovation, encourage enterprises to become an important measure of technological innovation.
Welding companies to achieve technological innovation, increase the technological content of welding materials technology center integrated technology innovation is the key. How to upgrade existing technology centers comprehensive level of technological innovation? This is a goal of technological innovation enterprises an important issue. However, this topic so far rarely reported in the literature. In this paper, Welding Technology Center on the high level of research priorities and the conditions should have a few comments.
First, the research focus of welding material
Depends on the direction of welding market demand. To adapt to market changes, to meet user requirements, increasing the variety, and further improve product quality, response to the following welding materials in-depth study.
(1) low-alloy steel electrodes with low hydrogen electrode process of this kind, the intrinsic quality and manufacturing quality welding, etc., compared with similar foreign electrode is still a certain gap, should carry out appropriate research.
(2) stainless steel electrode current domestic production of the A102 there are several types of stainless steel electrode process is close to foreign brands; but the process and anti-holes, and the process of crack resistance both in the Welding Wires Manufacturer, is still inadequate, there are some issues and technology should continue to study further.
(3) solid wire gas shielded welding processes of (splash, shape), the intrinsic quality and copper, reel, packaging technology gap with foreign advanced level is still in the development of varieties of different chemical composition should be a special wire .
(4) flux cored wire application prospect, the country has been introduced and their equipment up to dozens of production lines, the key is the quality of the product (performance) is better, lower price (reasonable). At present, domestic and foreign brand-name quality flux cored wire is still a gap compared, there is still the subject of continuing research and key technologies.
(5) Pipeline cellulose and low hydrogen type electrode vertical down welding in the "West-East" project in a large amount. Currently the main problem of domestic or cellulose electrode processes, such as the Arc force is small, sensitive pores, poor shape, and there is still a gap compared to foreign brands should continue to research (and possibly also in the chemical composition of a gap). Backing up down low hydrogen type electrode potential for market demand, the power must be put into research.
(6) special electrodes with low parathion metallurgical technology advances, the quality of steel escalating steel S, P content decreased (wP ≤ 0.025% ~ 0.030%, wS ≤ 0.015% ~ 0.020%), this must be new steel grades offer low S, P special electrodes, welding wire, flux and other soldering materials. It is facing a new topic.
Second, the research team level and study conditions
1 The researchers studied the structure and capabilities
Welding materials from R & D, manufacturing, product testing starting the whole process of control, need to configure the following professionals.
(1) a certain number of professional welding materials processing engineering graduates. They should have "Welding Metallurgy", "welded", "welding processes", "welding inspection" and other aspects of the theoretical knowledge and some practical experience and ability.
(2) with appropriate electrical and computer science graduates. Principle they should be proficient in equipment, tooling design with the transformation, computer control and other aspects of the theory and some practical experience and ability.
(3) with a certain number, the high school level and above the experimental staff. After training, they should be to master a variety of analytical test methods, the rich experience of testing personnel.
(2) should have the test conditions
(1) conventional chemical analysis, mechanical properties testing, optical metallographic analysis, nondestructive testing and equipment (including hardness tester, etc.). (2) small electrodes, flux research facilities (including oven). (3) Electrode drug skin moisture, deposited metal diffusible hydrogen content tester. Welding rod, Brazing Alloys wire, flux, arc welding power source and related equipment. (4) welding parameters analyzer. Welding current and voltage waveform analyzer. (5) metal transfer and arc shape analyzer (high-speed cameras or speed cameras). Conditions were also equipped with electron microscopy and related test equipment. (6) According to the needs and conditions are also equipped with welding slag physical properties testing equipment. (7) other relevant specialized equipment (such as ferrite analyzer, crack resistance testing devices, etc.).
Third, customer service should have the research capabilities and content
1 should have the research capacity
Intense competition in the market, in addition to the brand and scale of production, but to provide customers with a complete and effective technical service and technical support company products occupy important support for market share. In order to grasp the anchor, the first is talent. Quality requirements of such personnel are:
(1) The best Bachelor degree welding. (2) has a comprehensive welding metallurgy, welding structure of production, welding processes, welding inspection and related technology basics. (3) engaged in welding research, has made many achievements in the domestic welding industry has a certain reputation. (4) has a wealth of practical experience or have been in manufacturing welded structures produced on-site experience, the ability to analyze customer use of welding consumables in the nature of these problems, causes, and propose measures for improvement; necessary products for customers to solve difficult problems arise provision of services.
(2) The study should have
(1) the principle of selection of welding steel structures and for different working conditions, the correct selection of welding materials and related processes. (2) steel welding materials and matching different welding tests, including the crack resistance, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, etc., the mechanical properties of joints and other performance studied. (3) Failure analysis of welded structures by providing examples of failure of welded structures, analysis of the nature of failure, the mechanism and the reasons for the improvement of materials and processes provide the basis. (4) analysis of welded structure analysis of the defective weld defect type, location, nature, causes and influencing factors for the improvement of welding consumables and processes to provide a reliable basis. (5) welding quality accident analysis from the raw material quality, standards, production process, inspection and other sectors, analysis of the quality of the accident may have links to focus on testing, to identify key issues, to restore normal production. (6) management should focus on market characteristics and customer needs, research development, methods and measures to stabilize the market, constantly developing new products. (7) to study technical training for users of content and methods, enabling users to better understand the enterprise's products and trust. Not only to consolidate the old user, but also the continuous development of new users, the development of enterprises have the power.
Fourth, new technologies, new processes, new equipment, new materials
(1) nano-materials in medicine skin electrodes, flux and flux-cored wire in the application are frontier areas, and is an innovative exploration of the issue. The application of nanomaterials may make the quality of welding qualitative change. (2) to continue to carry out research and development of computer application of welding materials, sound progress has been made more practical results.
Fifth, and universities, research institutes, cooperation
Welding materials to bring in universities, research institutes, scientific and technological strength, the formation of some form of joint production and research, will help the transformation of scientific and technological achievements and advanced technology application, is conducive to the formation of technological innovation system. Now introduce some of Cooperation:
(1) the composition of teaching, research consortium. Welding plant topics and provide the necessary funding, the use of universities and research institutes, talent and technology, joint research and development of new products. (2) as required, welding plant selection from a number of institutions with extensive experience as a manufacturer of Distinguished Professor senior experts on a regular basis to guide and participate in research. (3) welding plant can send personnel to enter universities, research institutes accept the theory of post-graduate training or protocols can also pursue master's degree in engineering; high-level technology center can become a master, doctoral training base. (4) research regularly or irregularly held welding research and academic exchange, to exchange results, consultation, exploring the development.
(1) Enterprise Technology Center of the research content should be specific, technology key to clear; technological content of products after completion of the project should be significantly improved. (2) technology center should have a reasonable knowledge structure, the overall high level of research teams, equipped with modern welding material should also be required for advanced testing of analytical instruments. (3) The technology center should be able to provide customers with comprehensive, effective services, senior technical personnel, customer service should be based on the contents of the basic principles of research, testing skills, a comprehensive analysis of accident capacity as a starting point. (4) technical center in the field of current high-tech options to apply for the purpose of frontier subjects, to carry out exploratory research. (5) Technology Center to a variety of ways and institutions of higher learning, research institutes and technical cooperation.