Electrode arc welding operation, you must pay attention to safety and protection, security and protection technology to prevent the main shock, arc radiation, fire, explosion and toxic gas and smoke poisoning.
1.1 to prevent electric shock
Electrode arc welding, the welding voltage and output voltage and the voltage portable lighting so there is a danger. Therefore, to take measures to prevent electric shock. Or receive a zero. Welding cables and welding clamp insulation to good, if damaged, must be promptly repaired. Electrode arc welding, wear insulated shoes, wearing welding gloves. In boilers, pressure vessels, piping, narrow groove welding wet ground, there must be insulated pad, and some outside care. The use of portable lights, the voltage does not exceed the safe voltage of 36V, high above the ground does not exceed 12V. High-altitude operations, near high-voltage cable 5m or 2.5m from the low pressure within the operation, must blackout, and warning signs at the gates hung, set of people care. Electric shock if it was to cut off the power, and timely treatment.
1.2 to prevent the arc radiation
Strong arc welding arc and UV on the eye and skin damage. Welding Electrode , arc welding goggles must be used with film mask, and wearing overalls, wearing welding gloves. People welding operation, to avoid mutual influence, should set the arc shield or take other measures to avoid cross-arc radiation effects. Isolated from the Mars. 6 or more wind, there is no effective security measures can not be open-air welding operations and high-altitude operations, welding operations in the vicinity should be fire-fighting facilities. Welding work should be finished wind up, and promptly clean up the site, the complete elimination of fire.
1.3 to prevent fires
Ignition source lOm in welding operations within the high-altitude operations below and within reach of welding Mars, should be thoroughly cleared of organic dust, wood, sawdust, cotton, silk cotton, hay straw, oil, gasoline, paint and other flammable items. If not leave flammable items, such as timber, not the removal of thermal insulation and other combustible materials, reliable safety measures should be taken, such as water jet wet, covered wet sacks, asbestos cloth and so on.
1.4 to prevent explosions
Point lOm in welding operations within, may not have explosive materials in the oil depots, oil room, acetylene stations, spray booths and other explosive mixture of indoor, non-welding operations. No special measures, not including the pressure of the pressure vessel and piping welding. Inflammable and explosive materials during the installation over container before welding, the items to dress up to do, and water, steam or nitrogen replacement, clean: test explosion and other equipment with the examination and analysis of the concentration of the gas medium; welding operations , to open the flap, the operator should hide away from the container orifice.
1.5 to prevent toxic gases and smoke poisoning
Welding Flux will produce soluble fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, manganese, nitrogen oxides and other toxic gases and dust, can cause fluoride poisoning, manganese poisoning, such as welding pneumoconiosis, especially alkaline electrode in the container, the internal pipe welding even more. Therefore, according to the specific circumstances of a comprehensive ventilation, local exhaust ventilation, a small unit, exhaust welding smoke ventilation discharge measures.
Select the principles of welding rod First, the principle of selection considerations for the weldment physical and chemical properties and chemical composition: 1 strength point of view, to choose to meet the mechanical properties of the parent material of the electrode, or a combination of mechanical properties of the base metal electrode, or strong combined base metal weldability, switch to non-strength and good weldability electrode, but considering the weld strength of structural type, in order to meet stiffness requirements 2 then the alloy composition in line with or close to the base metal Higher base metal carbon, sulfur, phosphorus and harmful impurities, good crack resistance and resistance to stomatal performance of the electrode. Suggested the use of titanium dioxide calcium type, ilmenite-type electrode. If you still can not solve, you can selection of low hydrogen type electrode
Second, the principle of selection consideration for the working conditions of the weldment and the use of performance: To withstand dynamic loads and shock loads, in addition to ensuring the strength, impact toughness, elongation and uniform have high requirements should be followed by selection of low hydrogen type, titanium calcium and iron oxide-type electrode Contact with corrosive media, must be based on the types of media concentration, operating temperature, as well as the distinction between general corrosion or intergranular corrosion, etc., select the appropriate stainless steel electrode Work wear conditions should distinguish between general or by the impact wear, under wear at room temperature or one hundred high-temperature Work under very warm conditions should be selected to ensure that low-temperature or high temperature mechanical properties of the electrode
Three considerations: the principle of the weldment geometry the complexity of the beginning, the stiffness of the size of the weld groove preparation situation and welding position: Complicated shape or large thickness of the weldment, the weld metal shrinkage in the cooling stress, prone to crack, the crack resistance of the electrode must be selected, such as high toughness welding rod of low hydrogen type electrode or iron oxideTypes Of Welding Electrodes
(3) welding the weldment parts difficult to clean up the selection of strong oxidizing acid electrode is not sensitive to the oxide and grease to avoid holes and other defects
Considerations Shi welders to equipment selection principle: DC welder, should not be selected to limit DC power supply electrode, welding rod should be used in AC-DC power supply. Certain steel products (such as the elimination of heat treatment after welding of pearlitic heat-resistant steel) need, but by the equipment constraints (or structural constraints) can not be heat treated, it should use the non-base metal material welding rod (such as austenitic stainless steel electrode), may do not have to weld heat treatment
Principle of the five considerations in order to improve the welding process and to protect the health of workers: Acid electrode and alkaline welding rod to meet the requirements, maximize the use of acid electrode
Six considerations: labor productivity and economic rationality principle of selection: Use the same performance, you should try to choose the lower prices of acid electrode, rather than alkaline electrode, especially in the acid electrode titanium, titanium calcium type for your situation of China's mineral resources should be vigorously promoted
PS A general carbon steel and low alloy steel welding principles: One should make the strength of welded joints is greater than the minimum intensity of welded steel Should be not less than welding steel ductility and impact toughness of welded joints (3) In order to prevent welding cracks should be selected according to the poor weldability of the base metal welding processes
Two low-alloy steel and austenitic stainless steel (1) is generally used in chromium nickel higher than the base metal, plastic, crack resistance, good austenitic stainless steel electrode 2 selected corresponding to the stainless steel electrode for unimportant welding,
Third, the welding of stainless steel composite plate Recommend using the electrode of the primary, transitional, stratified in three different performance General, the grass-roots level with the corrosive medium of the composite plate without direct contact with the commonly used carbon and low alloy structural steel, welding at the grass-roots level can choose the appropriate level of structural steel electrode (3) transition layer in the junction of two different materials should be used with chrome-nickel clad steel plates, plastic, good crack resistance of austenitic stainless steel electrode composite layer directly in contact with the corrosive medium, the choice of austenitic stainless steel Current options: I = 10 * D * D (empirical formula), The SMAW how welding goggles and face masks? The greater the welding current, sunglasses tablets should be more black, the same mask, and the best clothing are not afraid of burning, or burning does not love to spread.