In accordance with the main component of the drug skin can determine the type of Welding Electrodes, as shown in ①. Of drug skin formula, resulting in the characteristics of a variety of drug skin type electrode slag, welding performance and weld metal mechanical properties are very different. Even the same type of drug skin, different grades of electrode composition and ratio of drug skin electrode process performance will be significant differences. Electrodes drug skin types and main features see ②. The ① electrode type of drug skin. Drug skin types: (1) titanium ‖ drug skin ingredients: titanium dioxide ≥ 35% ‖ welding power supply: AC or DC (2) drug skin types: titanium calcium type ‖ drug skin ingredients: titanium dioxide 30% carbonate, welding power source: DC or AC (3) less than 20% of salt ‖ drug skin types: of ilmenite ‖ drug skin main components: ilmenite ≥ 30% ‖ drug skin type welding power source: DC or AC (4): iron oxide type ‖ drug skin main components: the large amounts of iron oxide and more ferromanganese deoxidizer ‖ welding power supply: AC or DC (5) drug skin types: high cellulose sodium the ‖ drug skin main components: organic matter over 15% of titanium dioxide about 30% ‖ welding power source: DC (6) drug skin types: high-cellulose, the main component of the potassium-type ‖ drug skin: more than 15% of the organic titanium dioxide 30% ‖ welding power supply: AC or DC (7) drug skin types: low hydrogen sodium type the ‖ drug skin ingredients: calcium, magnesium carbonate and fluorite ‖ Welding Rod supply : DC (8) drug skin types: low hydrogen potassium type the ‖ drug skin ingredients: calcium, magnesium carbonate, and fluorite ‖ welding power supply: AC or DC (9) the type of drug skin: the skin of iron powder low hydrogen type ‖ drug main components: calcium, magnesium carbonate, fluorite and iron ‖ welding power supply: AC or DC (10) the type of drug skin: graphite ‖ drug skin main components: the large amounts of graphite ‖ welding power supply: AC or DC (11) drug skin types: the main component of the base ‖ drug skin: chloride and fluoride the ‖ welding power supply: DC ② electrode drug skin type characteristics (1) drug skin types: are not already requires the type of power supply types: does not require the main features: zirconia, rutile and alkaline type in some of the electrode, these new slag system is not yet formed a series of (2) the type of drug skin : titanium dioxide supply types: DC or AC main features: contain large amounts of titanium dioxide electrode process performance, stable arc, then arc spatter is small, shallow penetration, slag coverage, easy slag detachability. weld ripple particularly beautiful, all-position welding, especially appropriate for sheet metal welding, weld plastic and crack less. With drug skin changes in the amount of potassium, sodium and iron, is divided into the main features of the high titanium potassium type, high-titanium sodium and iron titanium (3) the type of drug skin: a lime-titania type of power: DC or AC : drug skin with titanium dioxide for more than 30 percent calcium, magnesium carbonate, 20%, the electrode process performance, good slag fluidity, and general penetration, arc stability, weld appearance and easy slag detachability, apply to the whole position welding, such as the J422 is guilty of this type is currently the most widely used as a welding rod used in the carbon steel electrode. (4) the type of drug skin: ilmenite type of power: DC or AC main features: drug skin containing ilmenite 305, electrode melting fast, slag fluidity, penetration deep, easy slag detachability, welding neat waves, stable arc welding, fillet welding process better performance, lesser vertical welding the welds have good crack resistance (5) drug skin types: iron oxide type of power: DC or AC main features: drug skin with large amounts of iron oxide and more ferromanganese Deoxidizer of, penetration, melting fast, high welding productivity, stable arc, then arc welding of overhead position welding is more difficult, splashing slightly larger, the weld thermal cracking performance, apply to plate welding. Arc force, suitable for field operation. Drug skin by adding a certain amount of iron compared with iron powder titania type (6) drug skin types: cellulose type of power: DC or AC main features: drug skin containing more than 15% organic, 30% of titanium oxide, good welding performance, stable arc, Arc force is large, deep penetration, slag, slag detachability. Can be used for vertical down welding, forming welding deep penetration or one-side welding. Li, Yang welding process. Applicable to the welding of the sheet structure, fuel tank, pipeline, vehicle shell. Arc stability in the skin with the drug agent, the binder content is divided into high-cellulose sodium (DCRP), high cellulose potassium two groups (7) drug skin types: low hydrogen potassium type (low hydrogen sodium type ) Power Supply: AC or DC (direct current) main features: drug skin composition of carbonate and fluorite. Electrode before use subject to the 300 ~ 400 ℃ baking. Short arc welding process in general, all-position welding. The weld has good crack resistance and mechanical properties of force. Suitable for the welding of welded structures. In accordance with the dose of drug skin in the steady arc, the amount of iron and binder is divided into low hydrogen sodium, low hydrogen potassium type and iron powder low hydrogen type (8) drug skin type: graphite Power Type: DC or AC main characteristics: drug skin contains large amounts of graphite, usually cast iron or hardfacing electrode. Low-carbon steel welding core, poor welding performance, splash more, smoke less slag suitable for flat welding. The use of non-ferrous metal welding core can improve their process performance, but the current is not easy (9) the type of drug skin: the base type of power: DC Main features: drug skin contain large amounts of chloride and fluoride, is mainly used for aluminum and aluminum alloys. Moisture absorption, drying prior to welding. Drug leather low melting point, melting fast. DC power to the welding process is poor, short arc, slag corrosion after welding required hot water cleaning In addition, for drug skin containing large amounts of iron powder electrode can be called the iron powder electrode. At this time, in accordance with the main component of the corresponding electrode drug skin can be divided into the iron titanium, iron titanium calcium type, iron ilmenite type, iron and iron oxide type, iron powder low hydrogen type, etc., constitute the iron Series of powder electrode. Classified by electrode performance Special electrode to electrode performance classification, are manufactured according to the performance of its special use, such as ultra-low hydrogen electrodes, low dust and low toxicity electrode, vertical down welding rod, lying welding electrode, a bottom electrode, efficient iron powder electrode, moisture electrode, underwater welding rod, gravity electrode.
Energy equipment, including welding, the welding head and welding control system. ① welding energy equipment: for the welding energy required. Commonly used in a variety of welding power source, also known as the welding machine. No-load voltage of 60 ~ 100 V, operating voltage 25 to 45 volts, the output current of 50 ~ 1000 Ann. Manual arc welding, arc length, often change process , Voltage changes caused by welding. To make stable welding current, outside of the arc welding power supply features should be plunged, as the output voltage changes, the change of the output current should be very small. MIG arc welding and submerged arc welding can be flat characteristic power, its output voltage changes when the current changes. The arc welding power sources are generally arc welding transformer, the DC arc welding generator and arc welding rectifier. Arc welding transformer is alternating current, and a wider application. DC DC arc welding generators, manufacturing is more complex, and consumable materials are more and less efficient, there is a trend that gradually replaced by arc welding rectifier. Arc welding rectifier DC arc welding power source is developed in the 1950s, silicon diode or thyristor rectifier. 1960s power transistor transistor-type arc welding power source, high control accuracy and excellent performance, but the cost is high. ERW welding energy equipment is relatively simple resistance welding transformer no-load voltage range of 1 to 36 volts, the current from a few thousand to tens of thousands of security. With this welder welding energy device known as the AC resistance welding machine. Other low-frequency resistance welding machine, resistance welding machines, capacitor discharge resistance welding machine and the secondary rectification of the DC pulse resistance welding machine ② welding head: it is the role of the welding energy equipment output energy is converted to a welding heat, and continue sent to the Welding Material, while the head itself to move forward to achieve welding. Manual arc Welding Electrode holder, with the melting of the welding rod must constantly manually sent to the welding down, and move forward to form the weld. Automatic welding machine automatically sent to the wire agencies, organic head and running gear and head to move forward. Commonly used in the car and hanging two kinds of head. The welding head resistance spot and projection welding electrode and its pressure institutions to exert pressure and power on the workpiece. Seam welding another drive mechanism to drive the workpiece move. Static and dynamic jig and fixture clamping mechanism, as well as mobile fixture welding equipment in the butt when And upsetting agencies. (3) welding control system: its role is to control the entire welding process, including control of welding procedures and welding parameters. General AC arc welding machine control system. Efficiency or precision welder with electronic circuits, digital circuits and microprocessor control.